What are the elements of the state


The state is a political union. As soon as a man is born, he joins the list of members of the nation. It cannot be said exactly when the nation was created. But it is said that with the creation of man, the need of the nation has become available. Being the most powerful organization, it coordinates various activities of individuals and associations.

It is through the nation that every individual gets proper development. Because the nation prepares and implements several welfare schemes for the overall development of the common people. With the change of time, the way of working of the nation also changes. Every human being has a desire for a smooth social life. At its root lies the reason for the creation of the nation. As the nation is a permanent institution, its needs are always met. The laws and policies of the nation regulate and strengthen the social life. It is called an essential institution because the will of man compels him to live in the nation.

Historical evolution of the state 

The evolution of the state did not happen in one day. It had taken a long period to evolve properly.

In the early days, people lived in small groups or tribes. These tribes had a simple form of leader, where decisions were taken by their respected individual older man. As society grew and expanded, led to the interaction, the need for more organized governance arose. Eventually, this led to the formation of a kingdom, in which the king or chief was in control of a larger area of land.

As communities spread and interacted over time, they also spread and interacted with each other. As a result, they realized the benefits of trade agreements and cooperative efforts. In this way, there was the example of the city-state, a system of self-government in which a city and its surrounding regions governed themselves. In many cases, city-states were complete, and sometimes alliances were formed between city-states.

In the course of interaction, empires developed through the process of conquest. During the Middle Ages, there were powerful kings and princes who ruled over large territories. Laws were made and taxes were collected by a powerful king. Roman Empire is the best example of this

As empires grew, they became harder to manage, which led to the emergence of decentralized feudalism, where local lords ruled small territories and people worked the land in exchange for protection.

The transition from feudalism to the modern state was influenced by such influences as technological progress, trade, and the concept of individual rights. + feudal rulers gradually lost their power and centralized monarchies formed. Along with the Enlightenment, new political theory advocated the rights of the people and representative


What is a State?

A nation is a sum of cities made up of small and large villages. This is a simple definition of the state. There are some important thinkers who define the state in different ways.

●Plato Plato in his famous book, The Republic, states that the state is an ideal society headed by the philosopher King. He believed that the state was a means of achieving justice and harmony, with citizens organized into three classes, Rulers, Warriors, and Creators.

●Aristotle- Aristotle defines the state as a natural institution and is the highest form of all association. He views that every individual come together to achieve the common good. He stresses the importance of citizenship, Rule of Law, and Virtue development among citizens.

●Thomas Hobbes – According to Hobbes state is sovereign. It has absolute power to make law and punish the lawbreaker. He proposes a social contract, where individuals give up certain freedoms for the sake of security and order under a sovereign authority.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Rousseau, in The Social Contract, states that the state is the result of a collective agreement among individuals to form a general will, that represents the common interest. He insists on popular sovereignty.

Elements of the state

There are 4 elements of the state.  These are (a) Population (b) Territory (c) Government (d) Sovereignty.

Population: The People Within the State

Population is required to form a nation. Because deserts, seas, and forests where there are no people can’t be called a nation. It is impossible to imagine a nation without population. The population does not have any definite limits. It can be a populous country like China and India or a sparsely populated country like Monaco and Samaria. So really speaking, the population of a nation should be according to the income and resources of that nation.l

Territory and Borders

 Like population, every nation must have a certain area of land. Without it, a nation cannot exist. Therefore, it should have specific boundaries. The boundaries of a nation are determined by water, land, sky, rivers, lakes, and minerals. Although land is necessary for the nation, there are no specific rules as to how much its boundaries should be. It can be as large as the borders of Russia, the United States, and China, or as small as Monaco and San Marino.


The government is an important part of the nation. Even if there are inhabitants of a certain land, it cannot be called a nation without a government. Government is a political organization through which the nation expresses its will and implements various decisions. The reality of the nation is revealed by the government.

A nation cannot be governed without a government, because the government enjoys all the powers of the nation. Controls the social life of the people. Also, the government establishes the rule of law and order. Without a government, anarchy is created and the condition of the nation, society, and individual deteriorates.

Sovereignty: The Backbone of a State

Sovereignty is the most important element of a nation. It is the life force of the nation. In this force, the nation appears to be different from all other associations. Sovereignty is the supreme power of the nation, over which no other power exists By exercising sovereign power, the nation independently determines its foreign policy by controlling its citizens, groups, institutions, etc.

So these are 4 basic elements of the state. But sovereignty is the backbone and exclusive element of the state. Without these four basic elements, state is not complete.

Why is the state important to man?

The state is important to humanity for several crucial reasons:

Security and protection 

The state is necessary because it protects citizens by maintaining law and order. It also protects Old citizens of the state. It provides security to public property and life by maintaining peace and order within the country. It establishes good relationships with other countries by adopting good foreign policy. Most importantly, it provides security protection from internal and external attacks.

Justice and Law Enforcement

A state establishes a law system, courts, and law enforcement agencies to ensure that every individual should be treated equally. It solves the dispute and provides justice. Most importantly, it protects the rights of each and every individual.

Common identity and Unity

The state unites citizens of the nation by fostering a sense of belonging and unity. It provides a common identity to citizens of the nation. It binds people together by historical facts, culture religion etc. So in simple word, the state play a significant role in binding people together.

Public service

The state provides different types of services to citizens such as free health care, free education, infrastructure development, and welfare programs. The state also focuses on the overall development of the quality of life of citizens and stability.

Economic stability

The state plays a significant role in economic stability. It exports raw materials, and weapons to other countries and it also ensures fair competition among the players. The state always focuses on a stable environment for businesses to thrive, leading to economic growth and stability.

Disaster response and relief

During a disaster, the state always provides proper assistance to affected people as well as it also provides relief to affected people. The state always stands with citizens of the Nation during any type of disaster or pandemic.


So, the state is very important for human beings to survive. Without the state, human beings can not fulfill their common need. Citizens should focus on the growth and development of the state which it can be useful during any disaster or pandemic.