Niccolò Machiavelli: father of modern political science

Machiavelli is often seen as the first modern thinker about politics because of his practical and not religious look at power in his best-known book called “The Prince”. This book came out in 1513. His ideas are different from old political ideas, which were influenced by religion and goodness. Instead, they focus on what a state needs in real life. He stressed how important the state is and the role of the leader in keeping power. He didn’t believe in the idea of good morals in politics. He thought too that the boss should be free from religion’s control and able to make choices that might not match religious teachings. His work was seen as upsetting in his own time and affected how people thought about politics in the future years. Most people who study history learn about the Renaissance from the view of growing land or art styles. But, the Italian Renaissance also made studying politics popular, according to old records and articles. Niccolò Machiavelli’s famous 1513 book The Prince is likely the starting point of today’s study of politics. Some experts and historians call Machiavelli the ‘father of modern political theory.’ He moved away from the common focus on good behavior, right and wrong, and justice in politics. Instead, he focused on getting power and running the state. Machiavelli’s separation of morality and ethics showed his difference from normal talks about politics. This led to big ideas still important now, like keeping the church away from the state. Machiavelli had lots of experience in diplomacy and politics before he wrote The Prince. Born in Florence, Italy in 1469 to a noble family, he worked in city jobs and was seen as a good leader. He then worked as the second top person in the Florentine Republic under Piero Soderini’s rule, until he was forced out in 1512. When the government of Soderini was removed, Machiavelli was blamed for planning against the new leaders of Florence. He was put in prison, made to suffer, and sent away to his farm in Perugia. There, he started writing The Prince and expressing the ideas that launched the start of modern political thinking.

Departure from Traditional Political Thought
Before Machiavelli, political thought was heavily influenced by religious and moral principles. The dominant strands of political theory derived their legitimacy from theological doctrines and classical philosophical principles. Thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas sought to describe the ideal form of political rule, often based on metaphysical ideas of justice, natural law, and virtue.
Rulers were expected to conform to these objective moral standards stemming from religion, philosophy, and tradition. Their authority was seen as part of a divine cosmic order, rather than derived from secular sources like popular consent or military power. The political rule had to reflect this divinely ordained moral order.
Machiavelli departed from this traditional approach by developing a pragmatic and secular theory of politics. He focused on the mundane realities of statecraft rather than utopian visions of ideal regimes. The ruler’s priority was the practical need to maintain power and stability in the state, not conforming to traditional morality. Machiavelli inverted the relationship between politics and ethics. Rather than politics serving lofty ethical goals, he made clear that ethics must serve political needs.
This novel secular approach stripped away the religious and philosophical pretenses that dominated medieval and ancient political thought. By putting politics on a secular foundation and freeing it from subservience to morality, Machiavelli is considered the founder of modern political philosophy. His ideas signaled an intellectual revolution that influenced political thought for centuries to come

Father of modern political science

Niccolò Machiavelli is often called the “father of modern political science.” Machiavelli, a thinker and writer from Italy during the time of the Renaissance, is famous for “The Prince” which he wrote about 500 years ago. In this important book, Machiavelli looked at how power works in politics, what leaders do, and how countries are run. His practical and true way of doing politics, focusing on good leadership and the hunt for peace and strength, has made a long-lasting effect in the study of politics.

Why Machiavelli is called as a modern political thinker

Machiavelli is considered as the first modern political thinker for several reasons:

Emphasis on secularism:
Machiavelli’s thoughts are marked by a non-religious way of looking at politics. He thought that politics and religion should not mix. The leader should be able to do what they want without listening to religious people. This non-religious way of thinking about politics is seen as a big part of modern ideas on government.

Focus on the state:
Machiavelli’s main worry was keeping the state safe and strong. He thought that the main aim of a leader should be to keep control and peace in the country. He should be ready to do whatever it takes to reach this goal. Thinking about the power of the ruler and the state is an important part of how people think about politics today.

Focusing on personal freedom and individual rights.
He thought the boss should be able to make choices even if they don’t agree with usual good behavior or belief rules. This could help keep control. This focus on the person is seen as a big part of today’s thinking about politics.

Emphasis on the exercise of power:
Machiavelli’s thoughts focus on using power. He thought that the leader should be ready to use power, trickery, and wrongdoing if they have to, to keep control. The focus on using power is an important part of today’s thinking about politics.

Machiavelli’s thoughts are marked by realism. This shows that he should be able to adjust to changing situations and be ready for what’s needed to keep power.
He didn’t think there were set rules everyone should follow in politics. He thought the leader should make decisions based on what’s best for the state. This real-world attitude and turning away from old-school values is seen as a big part of modern political ideas.
Machiavelli’s ideas were so modern. He wrote in everyday language, different from the Latin most scholars used. He often made his ideas stick by using strong words and easy-to-remember pictures.


In the end, Machiavelli is seen as the first modern thinker about politics. His ideas are away from old thoughts on politics and show a secular, state-focused, practical, and individual way to deal with politics. He said no to the idea of moral rules that are true for everyone and instead concentrated on what the state needed for its job. His thoughts and way of writing show the new things of his time.