Contemporary Political Theory-Features/nature and Scope

Contemporary political theory is called modern political theory. The beginning of modern political theory is considered to be around the 20th century. As soon as the First World War started, the traditional political theory started feeling threatened and after the Second World War, it became a reality in the complex political and social situations that arose after the Second World War. Traditional political theory started appearing relevant to you, and now new techniques of study in political science and units of fact analysis, the demand for a healthy theory started gaining momentum. Charles made it clear in his book that political science will have to find a new path because of politics. The theory has come in contact with such forces that in time they will modify its validity and process.

In 1953, David Chester initiated a new behaviorist revolution. By presenting political theory, the impracticality of traditional political theory was exposed. David Easton and other thinkers emphasized modernizing political theory.

What is Contemporary Political Theory?

Contemporary political theory is the study of current political ideas and issues with a focus on understanding and analyzing modern political theory, behavior, and ideas. Addressing current political challenges and exploring how political power, justice, rights, and democracy operate in today’s world.

  • According to Bloom:- According to Bloom, modern political theory encompasses all those with which politics is related.
  • According to Kettering:- Modern political theory includes both common sense and value determination.

Features of contemporary political theory:

The features of modern political theory are as follows:

1. Analytical Study – Modern scholars have adopted the analytical approach. He was not satisfied with the general description of the institutions. Because they wanted to understand political realities. For this reason, he emphasized on the analysis of informal structures, political processes, and behavior to understand the actual behavior of individuals and institutions. Scholars like Easton Dahlan, Weber, and Almond, etc. laid more emphasis on the actions and behavior of the individual because it was easier to understand the political system through their analysis.

2. Inter-Disciplinary Approach to the Study of Politics – Modern scholars believe that the political system is one of the many sub-systems of the social system and all these systems cannot be studied separately. Can. At that time, a fierce controversy arose regarding the mutual relationship between each sub-system, the state and the church, which became the main subject of the ideology of that period. Many scholars of Europe expressed the view that religion is superior to the state and that religious authorities can also interfere in the affairs of the state. St. Thomas Aquinas was a thinker of this opinion. On the other hand, the idea that the state was superior to the religious power and had the right to regulate the church remained important. This idea was mainly supported by William Akam.

3. Study for Solving Problems – The influence of the events of their era is clearly visible on the works of traditional writers and they were trying to find solutions to these problems in their own way. For example, in order to get rid of the environment of mutual jealousy and discord that existed before Plato among the city-states of Greece, he created the theory of the Philosopher King. The purpose of that system was to keep the ruling class above personal interests. The philosopher king would not have his own personal family and other people included in the ruling class would not have the right to establish their own families. They will have to consider the entire society as their family. Looking at the contemporary situation in Italy, Machiavelli came to the conclusion that lies, fraud, murder, and all other means are appropriate for a ruler to expand and strengthen his kingdom. Thus, in view of the situation of unrest and anarchy in England, Hobbes (1588-1679) supported the autocratic monarchy. The main objective of Hobbes’s thinking was to find a system by which the environment of civil war and unrest could be ended.

4. Mainly Normative Studies – Reading the texts of traditional thinkers shows that some of the ideals have not only been accepted already but the political institutions and governance of other countries are based on these beliefs. is tested. In this way, those writers took help of human origin. Human origin means that first a particular ideal is imagined in the mind and otherwise it would prove futile (Research ought to be systematic theory un supported by data may prove futile). Modern scholars are not interested in studying the ideal form of democratic governance of the present times and instead study the actual practical form of democracy empirically and with this assumption they have propounded the theory that like other governance systems, in democracy too there is only one class – small A special class rules. This approach is the result of empirical study of democracy.

5. Study of Informal Factors – According to modern scholars, the study of formal institutions like state, government and party, etc. in traditional study is not enough. They consider it necessary to study all the informal factors as well as all the formal factors in order to understand the political realities. He also emphasizes the study of public opinion, voting behavior, legislature, executive, judiciary, political parties, pressure groups, and public servants. Behavioral thinkers – Dahl, Davis, Easton, Almond, and Powell are included in this category.

6. Post-behaviorism: Method of re-accepting values (Post-

Behavioralism Acceptance of Values in the Study of Politics – The Behavioral Revolution had completely rejected ideals and values. In their desire to make politics a complete science, behaviourist writers remained entangled in figures and facts. He clearly refused to be associated with any ideal and goal. But soon a new revolution emerged, which is called post-behaviorism. The theorists of this era realized that politics cannot take the form of a complete science like the natural sciences. Therefore, he has called it human origin and said that “It is wrong to assume that a person cannot be a scientist without being value neutral.” He emphasized on a theory which, despite being dependent on empirical origin, would promote moral values. David Easton writes that “No matter how hard you try; Values are an integral part of your personality so easily. As human beings, we cannot help but be influenced by our emotions and our likes and dislikes.” Like David Easton, Coban and Ty Strauss have also emphasized on the reconstruction of values. John Rawls has tried to find out those principles and procedures by following which we can establish a just society.

Scope of Contemporary Political Theory

The scope of traditional political theory covers a wide range of topics that are fundamental to understanding political science as an independent discipline. Proponents of traditional political theory have emphasized the importance of several major regions within the region. Here is a refined version of the scope of traditional political theory:

Study of the State: Traditional Political theory studies the past, present, and future of the state, which are part of political science. It studies the origin, nature, theories, and purpose of the state. At present, it studies the various forms and functions of the state. It also studies what the state can do for the future.

Study of Government: The state itself cannot do anything, because the state is an abstract concept. The state has sovereignty, it needs a government to run it. The government fulfills the will of the state. It examines the structure, organization, and functions of various forms of government, including the roles of the executive, legislature, and judiciary.

Study of the Legal System: Traditional thinkers only talk about the legal system. They argue that political science is a legal study, and legal institutions will be studied. In this, informal groups cannot be studied. So legal systems are state, government, executive, and judiciary. It examines the framework of laws and legal institutions that govern a society, including the role of courts and the concept of justice.

Study of International Relations: International relations emerged in the 20th century due to the needs and demands of people. Export and import started between actors and non-actors on global platforms to meet the needs and demands of the people. It also includes diplomacy, conflict, trade, and international organizations. Actors and non-actors created a rule and laws to keep their relationship strong and maintain peace on the global stage.

Study of Political Ideologies and Political Theories: As political theory evolved, new concepts and ideologies emerged, such as liberalism, conservatism, socialism, etc. These ideologies came forward solving the problems of all the people. All these ideologies also paid attention to how the society should develop, how to solve the problems of the society, and how to create a good society for the people. So these ideologies brought change in the world.

Study of Political Party: Democracy was developed in Greece during the traditional period. Democracy was the government of the people. It works with the help of political parties. The people will make their minister or leader, this is done through elections.

Study of Election Methods: In a democracy, elections are necessary to choose the government. The election system of every country is different. Like who can vote, who can’t, who can contest elections for the post of minister etc. Along with the President and the Prime Minister, there would have been elections for the ministers also. In simple language, it examines different electoral systems and processes, including methods of voting, electoral rules, and their impact on political representation and outcomes.

Study of Rights and Duties: Fundamental rights are essential for an individual to develop his career, enjoy his freedom, and enjoy freedom within the political system. It is necessary to give fundamental rights to individuals for the development of the country because people want freedom and if they do not get freedom then they protest. To maintain peace in the state, it is necessary to examine the fundamental rights and duties of individuals within the political system, which include civil liberties, political rights, and responsibilities of citizenship.

Study of Constitutional Systems: Understanding the principles and structures of constitutional governance, including analysis of different types of constitutions and constitutional law.